Lesson Plan with Modifications/Accommodations for Students with Communication Disorders for 31 July 2007


Ted Shelov


Johnson & Wales University

 Portfolio Entry Slip



Grade and Content Area:

Grade 2

Reading Pre-Lesson


Using the Structure of a Non-Fiction Text to Determine Meaning Apart from The Text Itself

Introduction to Various Features of an Advanced Non-Fiction Text


Initial Understanding of Informational Text (R-7.1 to R-7.2)

R-2-7 Demonstrate initial understanding of informational texts (expository and practical texts) by…

  • R-2-7.1 Obtaining information, from text features (e.g. simple table of contents, glossary, charts, graphs, diagrams, or illustrations)
  • R-2-7.4 Generating questions before, during, and after reading to enhance recall, expand understanding and/or gain new information.

Context of the Lesson:

When beginning a new subject using a non-fiction text, students will see clues to the content and structure of a text by looking at such features as pictures, definitions within pictures, pronunciation guides, and a glossary.  Sometimes when the text, in part, is beyond their reading level, students must learn to extract certain information from the text and learn to skip some details without loosing the meaning of the text.

It is essential to know not only your content, but also know your students.

As stated in our class (SPED 5220), “Communication refers to the sending and receiving of messages, information, ideas or feelings.” 

So if language is any means, vocal or other, of communicating feeling or thought, and if it incorporates a system of symbols and rules, then this lesson plan offers an in-depth understanding of language that can include students with communication disorders in a very organic way.

When we discussed the commonality of languages and how they have specific features such as the centrality of communication, the sharing of a code, the inclusion of arbitrary symbols, the generative nature, creativity, and the constant of change, we hit on one intent of this particular lesson.  That is, this lesson attempts to extract a deep meaning from the text apart from the words themselves.



Opportunities to Learn:


1) One copy of Sea Turtles by Gail Gibbon

2) Handout sheet that includes:

  • Turtle match game
  • Turtle poem
  • Turtle draw/fill in

3) A glossary handout

4) ASL characters for all students to learn


Classroom Environment:

  • This lesson is organized as a full class introduction to a new text
  • The students were told about this subject and have expressed considerable interest.
  • Students should be able to ask questions of the text and of the teacher during this introduction.


Differentiated Instruction:

The educational practice must be appropriate as dictated by the educational needs of the child.
Supports in classroom for hearing impaired may include:

  • Putting the student in front of the class – proximity seating
  • Do away with extraneous class noise
  • Use FM unit or microphone, if appropriate
  • Use signer (ASL), if appropriate
  • Make sure the students in the classroom understand rules (face the student, fluent speech but not fast or slow, clear diction)
  • Visual support – graphic organizers, advanced planners (help develop metacognition – have them read notes in advance), Assign these students a note taker so that they can concentrate on what is being said; it can be hard for visually impaired students to do two tasks, such as these, at the same time.


This particular lesson lends itself to the special needs of students with communication disorders in the following ways:

  • Allows for shorter written assignments
  • Allows more time to complete written assignments
  • Allow students to substitute drawings, diagrams, graphs, charts for a written assignment
  • Uses cooperative group learning- reciprocal teaching, learning circles
  • Accept inventive spelling
  • Accept all attempts at speech production without error correction
  • Accompany print material with visuals for clarification and explanation
  • Encourage partner work
  • Explicitly instruct reading comprehension strategies
  • Explicitly instruct writing strategies

Assistive technology devices may be used (such as a wired room and communication board).


There is also an opportunity to teach all students the ASL for new terms and important concepts.


At the end of this lesson, students will be able to do the following:

  1. Understand the meaning of specific glossary terms
  2. Understand the idea of using a glossary either in the back of a text, or on a separate sheet
  3. Gather information from non-text clues


Speech pragmatics and the social aspects of communications is important to all students.  It is essential to teach students to wait, to teach them how interrupting is poor manners (and a particular problem for students with hearing issues).  Some children have to be explicitly taught the appropriate ways to greet and say goodbye (such as students with Aspergers, autism, ADHD, and any injury or disorder that interferes with auditory processing).

Instructional Procedures:

Opening (before reading):

The teacher reminds the class that they are going to read a book about sea turtles.  He will activate prior-knowledge by asking the group what they already know about turtles: when have they seen turtles?  Do they own one or know anyone who does?  Do they know what else people do with turtles (race them, eat them)? Next, he will ask the students to identify if the text is fiction or non-fiction and why.  Students will then be guided to pages that contain things other than text such as images and images with pronunciation guides and descriptions.  They will also be shown a glossary made up from certain important terms in the text.  The students will then be given a handout with a turtle match up game, a turtle poem, and a turtle draw/fill in.



A glossary of terms is handed out and students are asked to find these terms in the book.



After the teacher reads 3 sections from the text (introduction, eating, migrating to nest) he will ask the students a few review questions to make sure they understand the material.


During the discussion the teacher will understand if the students comprehend by the questions he asks.  He will adapt his presentation and discussion to an ongoing evaluation of student participation.

The teacher will also be able to assess how comfortable students are with comprehending text using features other than text.






US Geological Survey – Coloring Pages



Sea World – Turtle Match Game


All about this book



Levile level: 720L







Glossory terms (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http://www.m-w.com/)):

Reptiles – an animal that crawls or moves on its belly (as a snake) or on small short legs (as a lizard)

Cold-Blooded - having a body temperature set by the environment

Scutes – Large scales



Pronunciation guide:

no such consistency in sound and spelling, and so a dictionary of English must devote considerable attention to the pronunciation of the language. The English lexicon contains numerous eye rhymes such as love, move, and rove, words which do not sound alike despite their similar spellings. On the other hand, it also contains rhyming words such as breeze, cheese, ease, frieze, and sleaze whose rhymes are all spelled differently


Pronunciation guide:

Page 2:  Archelon (ARCH * e * lon)

\ e \      as in bet, bed, peck.



Relevant references within the text

Glossary Image on page 2

Sea turtles migrate, or travel, to a place

Anatomy of a sea turtle – page 4-7

Why is the turtle crying? - Page 7

How do sea turtles eat?

What do sea turtles eat?


Sea Turtles


One way to tell one type of sea turtle from another is to look at the pattern of scutes on their shells.


All the turtles on this page are trying to find their mates - can you help them?


Draw a line to connect the turtles whose shells are alike.






A Turtle Story

I once knew a sea turtle, and her story's quite a tale. She traveled over 1,000 miles, her aim was not to fail.

She was headed to a southern beach, the same one on which she hatched. She finally arrived and started her trek, a trek that dared to be matched.

She was tired and worn from her long ocean swim, yet she pulled herself up on the shore. She scooped out a nest in the soft sandy, beach, knowing exactly what was in store.

She laid 100 eggs in that coastal nest, and covered them all up with sand. She returned to the sea that very same night, leaving her hidden eggs up on the land.

Then two months later something amazing occurred - hatchlings emerged from the nest! They scrambled about trying to get to the ocean, their instincts just wouldn't rest.

Their journey, however, had just begun; the light of the moon was the key. Across the wide beach they must race for the waves, to begin their life in the sea.






Reptiles –                     an animal that crawls or moves on its belly (as a snake) or on small short legs (as a lizard)


Cold-Blooded -             having a body temperature set by the environment


Scutes –                       Large scales




Pronunciation Guide



Archelon (ARCH * e * lon)

\ e \      as in bet, bed, peck.




Atlantic Green Sea Turtle (DRAW AS YOU LIKE)





Sign Writing (http://www.signwriting.org/ ):




Web based signing.